This Technical Note points out several potential problem areas developers should know about when designing I/O expansion slot cards for the Apple IIGS.
This Note is written for experienced design engineers. It is not intended to be a tutorial on Apple IIGS I/O expansion card design techniques, but rather to point out possible problem areas and pitfalls to help developers produce successful and reliable expansion cards.
It is important to understand the timing of the 65C816 Phase 2 clock (PH2) on the IIGS, because several of the expansion slot signals are actually related to the PH2 clock timing, rather than the 1 MHz Phase 0 clock (PH0) available at the expansion slots. Unlike the Apple IIe, the PH2 clock at the CPU is not the same as the PH0 clock found at the expansion slots. The PH2 clock runs at a variety of periods, depending on whether the CPU is doing a normal 350 nanosecond 2.8 MHz cycle, a extended 700 nanosecond RAM refresh cycle, an isolated slow cycle, or consecutive 980 nanosecond 1.024 MHz slow cycles. During isolated slow cycles, or the first of a series of consecutive slow cycles, the fast side of the system must wait to synchronize with the 1 MHz side of the system. This synchronization results in an average cycle time of about 1.5 microseconds.
Cycle Type Low High Period _____________________________________________________________________ Normal 2.8-MHz cycle 140ns 210ns 350ns Refresh extended cycle 140ns 560ns 700ns Isolated 1-MHz cycle 140ns typ. 1.33 msecs avg. Å1.5 msecs Consecutive 1-MHz cycles 140ns 840(980)ns 980ns _____________________________________________________________________ Table 1 - PH2 Clock Times
On the Apple IIGS, the Mega II select signal (/M2SEL) is used as the enable to the slower, 1 MHz side of the system. It goes active (low) whenever the 1 MHz side RAM or I/O areas are accessed. Accesses that cause /M2SEL to be asserted include shadowed video writes, any accesses to internal I/O or expansion card slots, and accesses to banks $E0 and $E1. Accesses to any expansion card ROM areas that are set to Internal ROM with the Slot register do not assert the /M2SEL signal and run at the 2.8 MHz speed rather than the normal 1 MHz expansion card speed. Also, accesses to the Shadow register ($C035), CYA register ($C036), or DMA bank register ($C037), and reads from the Slot register ($C02D) or State Register ($C068) run at full speed since they are done wholly on the fast side of the system.
/M2SEL can be viewed as an extension of the address bus on the expansion slots. When it is active, it indicates that the CPU is running synchronized with the 1 MHz side of the system and the address on the address lines is a valid Apple II address in the 128K main or auxiliary memory space.
The Mega II bank 0 signal (M2B0) provides the least significant bit of the CPU or DMA bank address to the 1 MHz side of the system. It is normally tri-stated and goes active for 140 nanoseconds, starting 140 nanoseconds after the PH0 clock falls. During the 140 nanosecond active period, M2B0 will be high whenever the CPU is accessing bank $E1 (with the exceptions noted previously) or doing a shadowed video write or I/O access in bank $01. Note that M2B0 does not reflect the state of the RAMRD, RAMWRT, ALTZP, 80STORE, or PAGE2 soft switches that allow access to the auxiliary 64K through bank $00. It only indicates accesses to bank $E1 or shadowed accesses through bank $01.
It is generally safe to latch the state of M2B0 by using the falling edge of the Q3 clock. Even though M2B0 will be tri-stated at the about the same time as Q3 falls, the turn-off and float time on M2B0 will generally provide sufficient hold time provided that there is not more than 1 LS TTL load on M2B0.
____ ________________________ PH0 \________________________/ \______ _______________| _______________ ______ Q3 ____/ |________/ \________/ | | ______|_ M2B0 _____________/ | \______________________________________ \______|_/ | |<- Latch state of M2B0 here Figure 1 - When to Latch State of M2B0
The Apple Video Overlay card uses M2B0 to detect writes to main and auxiliary RAM so that it can capture writes to the Apple IIGS video display buffers into its on-card display buffer. M2B0 is designed for this sort of thing and isn't of much use in most other applications. Note that M2B0 is only available on slot 3.
The Ready (RDY) input to the 65C816 is used to prevent a CPU cycle from completing until the expansion card has accepted the data output or has its input data available.
When the RDY input to a 65C02 or 6502 is held low, the processor continues to output the same address until RDY is released and the CPU completes the current cycle.
In the Apple IIGS, the 65C816 samples the RDY input when the PH2 clock goes low, and if RDY is low, the current CPU cycle does not complete and the address continues to be emitted. However, the bank address is not emitted while the clock is low if RDY is held low. To deal with this situation, the FPI (Fast Processor Interface) custom IC in the Apple IIGS uses a transparent latch to capture the bank address from the CPU. The latch is transparent while the PH2 clock is low and holds the bank address while the PH2 clock is high. If RDY is low, the CPU emits an invalid bank address, so the FPI holds the latch closed while RDY is low. This action is normally completely transparent to cards in the Apple IIGS expansion slots, but if an expansion card asserts RDY while the PH2 clock is low, it is likely to cause the FPI to latch an invalid bank address, because the latch could close before the bank address from the CPU is available on the data lines.
To avoid unpredictable results, RDY should only be asserted or deasserted when /M2SEL is low and when PH0 is high, or when /DEVSEL, /IOSEL or /IOSTRB are active. When /M2SEL, /DEVSEL, /IOSEL or /IOSTRB are active, you are guaranteed that the 65C816 is running at 1 MHz and is properly synchronized to the 1 MHz side of the system. RDY should be stable at least 60 nanoseconds before the falling edge of PH0 to allow for about a 25 nanosecond skew between the PH0 slot clock and the PH2 CPU clock. Figure 2 shows where it is safe to assert or deassert RDY. Limiting changes to RDY to the time when PH0 is high guarantees that it does not change while the CPU is outputting the bank address.
The RDY line should be driven with an open-collector driver.
->| |<- 35ns min ____ ______________________________________|___| PH2 \_____/ | |________ | | | ->||<- 25ns min ____ |___________________|____| PH0 \________________________| | |_______ | | | _____________ | | | _____ /M2SEL \_______________|___________________|____|_/ | | | |<----------------->| | Safe to assert | | or deassert | | /NMI, ________________________________________________ |____|_______ /IRQ, \| | /RST, ________________________________________________/|____|_______ RDY | | ->| |<- 60ns min Figure 2 - Control Signal Setup Time
The Interrupt Request (/IRQ), the Non-Maskable Interrupt (/NMI) and the Reset (/RST) signals are all interrupt lines that are sampled by the CPU when the PH2 clock falls. If they are valid 30 nanoseconds before the PH2 clock falls, they are recognized on the following cycle. If this setup time is not met, they may not be recognized until the second following cycle . Since there can be up to a 25 nanosecond skew between the PH0 and PH2 clocks, these signals should be valid 60 nanoseconds before PH0 falls if they are to be recognized on the following cycle. Figure 2 shows the correct setup time for these signals.
All three signals are all active-low and must be driven with open-collector drivers.
Note: Interrupt vectors are always pulled from ROM regardless of whether or not the language card soft-switches have ROM enabled, providing that the I/O shadowing for banks $00/01 is enabled -- which it always is when running Apple IIGS or Apple II system software.
The Direct Memory Access (/DMA) signal is used to temporarily halt the CPU and allow expansion cards direct access to the system RAM to transfer data at high speeds. Since the 65C816 is fully static while the PH2 clock is high (unlike the 6502), /DMA may be asserted for as long as necessary on the Apple IIGS.
The /DMA signal should be asserted and deasserted within the 100 nanosecond period after PH0 falls, and the DMA address should be emitted by the expansion card about 30 nanoseconds later. In any case, the address should be stable on the address bus no later than 120 nanoseconds after PH0 falls. This guarantees that there is enough time for the address to be decoded and for /M2SEL and M2B0 to be asserted by the FPI chip if the DMA transfer is to the 1 MHz side of the system. The bank address must be stored in the DMA bank register at location $C037 before using DMA.
/DMA is a active-low signal and should be driven with an open-collector driver. The Apple IIGS provides a pullup for /DMA, but since the pullup is a fairly high value, it is a good idea for an expansion card that has asserted /DMA to momentarily pull it high for a few nanoseconds when deasserting it.
Note that there is a minor hardware bug in the Apple IIGS that could cause problems for developers who are unaware of it. If the CPU is currently pulling an interrupt vector when the /DMA signal is asserted, and if the DMA address is accessing the language card ($D000-$FFFF) space in a bank of memory where I/O and language card emulation is enabled (normally banks $00, $01, $E0 and $E1), DMA reads access ROM rather than RAM. This happens because the CPU's Vector Pull (VP) signal is active while the DMA cycle is active. Since most expansion cards that use DMA are also associated with some corresponding firmware or software driver, it's a good idea to disable interrupts prior to doing the DMA transfer, then re-enable interrupts as soon as possible after the transfer is complete. If interrupts are off too long, AppleTalk shuts down any connections to file servers because the system does not respond to AppleTalk "tickle" transactions while interrupts are disabled.
We recommend that the DMA be done with the Apple IIGS running at 1 MHz. If DMA is started during a 1 MHz cycle (/M2SEL asserted), the system continues to run slow while the /DMA signal is active.
The data bus on the Apple IIGS (and Apple IIe) expansion slots is a multiplexed bus that is used to carry both CPU and video display data. While PH0 is low, the bus is used to transfer data from the system RAM to the video display circuitry. When PH0 is high, the bus is available for CPU data transfers. To avoid potential (or actual) bus fights, it is helpful to avoid driving read data from an expansion card onto the bus immediately after PH0 rises. Since the video read data is driven out onto the expansion slots, and expansion card read data is driven in from the slots, it takes a finite period of time for the bus buffers to turn around. If a card drives data onto the expansion slot data bus immediately after PH0 rises, there may be a bus fight between the expansion card trying to drive the bus, and the Apple IIGS (or Apple IIe) bus buffers, which may not have turned around yet. A similar problem can occur if an expansion card leaves its read data on the bus too long after PH0 falls.
On the Apple IIGS, the data buffers turn around in 30 nanoseconds or less from the PH0 edges. Developers can avoid bus fights by simply using 74LS or 74HCT series parts and relying upon typical delay stackups to delay driving the data bus for approximately 30 nanoseconds. A more solid technique is using the first rising edge of the 7M clock, after PH0 rises. This method may require an additional flip-flop, but it guarantees the desired delay. On the other hand, expansion card read data buffers should be turned off as soon as possible when PH0 falls to avoid a fight when the data buffers turn back out again. Figure 3 shows the recommended data transfer timing for the data bus.
__ |___________________________| PH0 \___________________________| |_______ | | ___ ___ ___ ___| |___ ___ ___ |___ 7M __/ \___/ \___/ \___/ |___| \___/ \___/ \___| \___ | | | Recommended Delay ->| |<- | __ __________________________|_ |_______________________|| _____ D7-D0 \/ Video Data | \_| Data from I/O Card ||/ __/\__________________________|_/ |_______________________||\_____ | | || 0 to 30ns (as short as possible) ->||<- Figure 3 - Recommended Data Transfer Timing
Since the Apple II expansion slots were designed with only one ground pin, complex expansion cards sometimes have problems with excessive ground noise -- especially in the IIGS, where the signals typically have faster rise and fall times. To reduce ground noise as much as possible, it is helpful to bypass all four supply voltages (+5 volt, +12 volt, -5 volt, -12 volt) to ground with electrolytic or solid tantalum capacitors, even if all the available voltages are not used on the expansion card. This additional bypassing has the effect of providing an improved ground by providing additional AC ground paths through the various supply pins.
To maintain a consistent ground quality over the board area on two-layer boards, it is important to properly grid the Vcc and ground traces and to fill in unused areas with ground plane.
The Apple IIe and Apple IIGS expansion slot specifications indicate a total of 500 mA of +5 volt, 250 mA of +12 volt, 200 mA of -5 volt, and 200 mA of -12 volt power is available to all the expansion slots. With design improvements, the power required by disk drives has been reduced. Also, the Apple IIGS power supply is conservatively designed so there is somewhat more power available than indicated on the original specification. However, there is not unlimited power available, and expansion card developers should minimize power consumption as much as possible. Minimization can be accomplished by using CMOS wherever possible, using ROMs or RAMs with "power-down" mode when they are not enabled, and generally being careful to minimize parts count.
Since the Apple IIGS was released, several "super" expansion cards have become available. These cards typically provide a lot of performance and functionality, but in most cases, the power consumed by one card is more than the specified power available to all the expansion slots. Generally these cards work without problems. However, when several "super" cards are installed in a IIGS system, the total power drawn can exceed the available power supply capacity. This increase in power dissipation within the IIGS case can cause excessive heating and other associated problems when the internal case temperatures exceed the design specifications. This could conceivably damage the IIGS power supply. Please minimize the power requirements of expansion card designs wherever possible to avoid these problems.
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